Research in Zoology

Research in Zoology is a peer-reviewed journal that plays an important role in disseminating information on field-based, experimental, and theoretical research on the zoology of the region. It covers all aspects of basic, comparative, and applied protozoan and animal biology at molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, population, and community-ecosystem levels.

Robert Hunter

Editorial Board Member of Research in Zoology

Research Scientist, Elanco Animal Health, USA

Research Areas

Comparative Physiology, Zoological Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Bioequivalence, Allometry


2000Ph.DVeterinary Medical Sciences, Louisiana State University,Baton Rouge, Louisiana
1989M.SVeterinary Physiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
1987B.SMajor: Animal Science; minor: chemistry; Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas


2010-presentSenior Research Scientist; Elanco Animal Health, Global Harmonization & Access
2010-presentAdvisor; International Elephant Foundation
2004-2010Senior Research Scientist; Elanco Animal Health, Food Animal Therapeutics Product Development
2000-2004Assistant Professor of Veterinary Pharmacology; Department of Anatomy & Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University

Academic Achievement

Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare®: 2011-2012, 2009-2010
Who's Who in Science and Engineering®: 2011-2012, 2008-2009
Elanco R&D Intelligent Risk Award: Q2, 2010
Strathmore's Who's Who: 2010
Elanco Food Animal Therapeutic Team MVP award: Q4, 2009
Who's Who in America®: 2007, 2010
Elanco Innovation Award: 2005
Leading Educators of the World, International Biographical Centre: 2005
Academic Keys Who's Who in Veterinary Medicine Higher Education: 2003-2004
American Registry of Outstanding Professionals: 2002-2003
Strathmore's Who's Who: 2002-2003
International Who's Who of Professional Educators: 2001
Pfizer Fellowship in Veterinary Pharmacology, 1995 to 1999
International Who's Who of Professionals: 1998
LSU Phi ZetaResearch Platform Presentation Award, 1998
The National Dean's List, 19th edition: 1995-1996
Hoechst-Roussel Agri-Vet Company Graduate Student Award, 1996
Sterling Who's Who, 1995
Who's Who in the South and Southwest, 23rd edition: 1993-1994
Senior Scholarship Award, Angelo State University Block & Bridle Club, 1987
Senior Merit Award, Angelo State University Block & Bridle Club, 1987
Carr Scholarship, Angelo State University, 1986
President's Scholarship, Texas Wesleyan University, 1983
Chemistry Scholarship, Texas Wesleyan University, 1983


American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT), Fellow, 2001 to present
Executive Councilor; 2003-2006
Member-AAVPT 14th Biennial Planning Committee; 2003-2005
Scientific & Education Sub-committees
Chair-Drug Availability and Food Safety Committee; 2002-2005
Member-Membership Committee; 2006-present
Member-Nomination Committee; 2004
Member-AAVPT/ACVCP Merger Committee; 2002-2003
Member-Veterinary Pharmacology Education Committee; 2002 to present
USP delegate; 2005
Associate Fellow, 1995-2001
European Association of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology (EAVPT), Member, 1998 to present
American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA), Associate Member, 2004 to present
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (AAZV), Associate Member, 2000 to 2005
American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET), Member, 2000 to 2005

Publications: Journals

[1]  K.R. Lombardi, T. Portillo, R. Hassfurther, & R.P. Hunter (in press) Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in beef cattle following intravenous and subcutaneous administration. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. R.P. Hunter, T.R. Shryock, B.R. Cox, R.M. Butler, & J.E. Hammelman (2011) Overview of the Animal Health Drug Development and Registration Process: An Industry Perspective. Future Med. Chem., 3, 881-886.
[2]  M.N. Martinez, R.P. Hunter, R. Baynes, E. Bermingham, R. Claxton, C. Cole, J. Robinson, J. del Castillo, R. Gehring, C. Lainesse, S. Modric, A. Lucas, & K. Harshman (2011) The 2010 AAVPT/EAVPT/ECVPT bioequivalence workshop. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 34, 105-107.
[3]  M.N. Martinez & R.P. Hunter (2010) Current Challenges Facing the Determination of Product Bioequivalence in Veterinary Medicine. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 33, 418-433.
[4]  L. Tana, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2010) Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of butorphanol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. Zoo Wild. Med., 41, 418-425.
[5]  J.W. Carpenter, C.G. Pollock, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2009) Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after ten days of oral administration to the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J. Zoo Wildl. Med., 40, 601-606.
[6]  R.P. Hunter, T.J. Burnett, & S.A. Simjee (2009) Letter to the Editor. Br. Poul. Sci., 50, 544-545. 8. M. Martinez, I. Mahmood, & R.P. Hunter (2009) Allometric scaling of clearance in dogs. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 32, 411-416.
[7]  A. Bhandari, F. Xu , D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2009) Peroxidase-mediated polymerization of 1-naphthol: Impact of solution pH and ionic strength. J. Environ. Qual., 38, 2034-2040. 10. J.W. Carpenter, C.G. Pollock, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2009) Single and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin after oral administration to rabbits. Am. J. Vet. Res., 70, 522-526.
[8]  R.P. Hunter & R. Isaza (2008) Concepts and issues with interspecies scaling in zoological medicine. J. Zoo Wild. Med., 39, 517-526. 12. A. Bhandari, L.I. Close, W. Kim, R.P. Hunter, D.E. Koch, & R.Y. Surampalli (2008) Occurrence of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and azithromycin in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pract. Periodical Haz. Toxic. Radioactive Waste Mgmt., 12, 275-281.
[9]  R.P. Hunter, I. Mahmood, & M.N. Martinez (2008) Prediction of xenobiotic clearance in avian species using mammalian or avian data: How accurate is the prediction? J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 31, 281-284.
[10]  C.G. Pollock, J.W. Carpenter, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2008) Single and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of tepoxalin and its active metabolite after oral administration to rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 31, 171-174.
[11]  M. Herrera, H. Ding, R. McClanahan, J.G. Owens, & R.P. Hunter (2007) Quantitative determination of tilmicosin in canine serum by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chrom. B, 857, 9-14.
[12]  R.P. Hunter, C.R. Short, M.J. Myers, D.E. Farrell, J.R. McClure, C.E. Koch, & M.L. Keowen (2007) The effect of cimetidine and aminoguanidine on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the horse. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 27, 306-311.
[13]  R.P. Hunter, D.E. Koch, R.L. Coke, J.W. Carpenter, & R. Isaza (2007) Identification and comparison of marbofloxacin metabolites from the plasma of Ball Pythons (Python regius) and Blue and Gold Macaws (Ara ararauna). J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 30, 257-262.
[14]  L.C. Freeman, D.F. Narvaez, A. McCoy, F.B. von Stein, S. Young, K. Silver, S. Ganta, D. Koch, R. Hunter, R.F. Gilmour, & J.D. Lillich (2007) Depolarization and decreased surface expression of K+ channels contribute to NSAID-inhibition of intestinal restitution. Biochem. Pharmacol., 74, 74-85.
[15]  A. Cole, A. Mutlow, R. Isaza, J.W. Carpenter, D.E. Koch, R.P. Hunter, & B.L. Dresser (2006) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of carfentanil and naltrexone in female common eland (Taurotragus oryx). J. Zoo Wild. Med., 37, 318-326.
[16]  M. Martinez, I. Mahmood, & R.P. Hunter (2006) Interspecies allometric scaling: prediction of clearance in large animal species: Part II: mathematical considerations. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 29, 425-432.
[17]  I. Mahmood, M. Martinez, & R.P. Hunter (2006) Interspecies allometric scaling. Part I: prediction of clearance in large animals. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 29, 415-423.
[18]  J.W. Carpenter, R.P. Hunter, J.H. Olsen, H. Henry, R. Isaza, & D.E. Koch (2006) Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna). Am. J. Vet. Res., 67, 947-950.
[19]  R.L. Coke, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, M.A. Pellerin, & R.P. Hunter (2006) Preliminary single-dose pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in ball pythons (Python regius). J. Zoo Wild. Med., 37, 6-10.
[20]  J.W. Carpenter, J.H. Olsen, M. Randle-Port, D.E. Koch, R. Isaza, & R.P. Hunter (2005) Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in the blue and bold macaw (Ara ararauna) after intravenous and oral administration. J. Zoo Wild. Med., 36, 606-609.
[21]  E.M. Rush, R.P. Hunter, M. Papich, B.L. Raphael, P.P. Calle, T.L. Clippinger, & R.A. Cook (2005) Pharmacokinetics and safety of acyclovir in tragopans (Tragopan sp.). J. Avian Med. Surg., 19, 271-276.
[22]  M. Martinez, J. Clark, B. Dunham, R.P. Hunter, C. Langston, A. Lucas, & D. Jordan (2005) American academy of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics 14th biennial symposium. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 28, 495-498.
[23]  H.L. Heeb, R. Chun, D.E. Koch, L. Moore, M. Radlinsky, M. Corse, M.A. Pellerin, L. Garrett, & R.P. Hunter (2005) Multiple dose pharmacokinetics and acute safety of piroxicam and cimetidine in the cat. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 28, 447-452.
[24]  G. Dumonceaux, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2005) Pharmacokinetics and i.m. bioavailability of ceftiofur in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 28, 441-446.
[25]  R.P. Hunter, M. Radlinsky, D.E. Koch, M. Corse, M.A. Pellerin, & J. Halstead (2005) Plasma pharmacokinetics and synovial fluid concentrations after oral administration of single and multiple doses of celecoxib in Greyhounds. Am. J. Vet. Res., 66, 1441-1445.
[26]  F. Xu, D.E. Koch, I.C. Kong, R.P. Hunter, & A. Bhandari (2005) Peroxidase-mediated oxidative coupling of 1-naphthol: Characterization of polymerization products. Water Res., 39, 2358-2368.
[27]  C.A. Manire, R.P. Hunter, D.E. Koch, L. Byrd, & H.L. Rhinehart (2005) Pharmacokinetics of ticarcillin in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections. J. Zoo Wild. Med., 36, 44-53.
[28]  D.E. Koch, A. Bhandari, L. Close, & R.P. Hunter (2005) Azithromycin extraction from municipal wastewater and quantitation using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Chrom. A, 1074, 17-22.
[29]  A. Mutlow, R. Isaza, J.W. Carpenter, D.E. Koch, & R.P. Hunter (2004) Pharmacokinetics of carfentanil and naltrexone in domestic goats (Capra hircus). J. Zoo Wild. Med., 35, 489-496.
[30]  R. Isaza, G.A. Andrews, R.L. Coke, & R.P. Hunter (2004) Assessment of multiple cardiocentesis in ball pythons (Python regius). Contemp. Top. Lab. Anim. Sci., 43, 35-38.
[31]  R.P. Hunter, R. Isaza, J.W. Carpenter, & D.E. Koch (2004) Clinical effects and plasma concentrations of fentanyl after transmucosal administration in three species of great ape. J. Zoo Wild. Med., 35, 162-166.
[32]  R. Isaza & R.P. Hunter (2004) Drug delivery to captive Asian elephants-treating goliath. Curr. Drug Del., 1, 291-298.
[33]  R.P. Hunter, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, C.C. Dodd, & M.A. Goatley (2004) The pharmacokinetics of topical doramectin in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 27, 187-189.
[34]  R.P. Hunter, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, C.C. Dodd, & M.A. Goatley (2004) Moxidectin plasma concentrations following topical administration to llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Sm. Rumin. Res., 52, 275-279.
[35]  D.E. Koch, R. Isaza, J.W. Carpenter, & R.P. Hunter (2004) Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of fentanyl and norfentanyl from primate plasma with LC/MS detection. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., 34, 577-584.
[36]  R.P. Hunter, D.E. Koch, A. Mutlow, & R. Isaza (2003) Extraction and quantitation of carfentanil and naltrexone in goat plasma with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Chrom. B, 793, 351-355.
[37]  H.L. Heeb, R. Chun, D.E. Koch, M.A. Goatley, & R.P. Hunter (2003) Single dose pharmacokinetics of piroxicam in cats. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 26, 259-263.
[38]  C.A. Manire, H.L. Rhinehart, G.J. Pennick, D.A. Sutton, R.P. Hunter, & M.G. Rinaldi (2003) Steady-state plasma concentrations of itraconazole following oral administration in Kemp's Ridley sea turtles, Lepidochelys kempi. J. Zoo Wild. Med., 34, 171-178.
[39]  R.P. Hunter, D.E. Koch, R.L. Coke, M.A. Goatley, & R. Isaza (2003) Azithromycin metabolite identification in plasma, bile and tissues of the ball python (Python regius). J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 26, 117-121.
[40]  R.L. Coke, R.P. Hunter, R. Isaza, D.E. Koch, M.A. Goatley, & J.W. Carpenter (2003) Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of azithromycin in ball pythons (Python regius). Am. J. Vet. Res., 64, 225-228.
[41]  R.P. Hunter, R. Isaza, & D.E. Koch (2003) Oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ketoprofen enantiomers after oral and intravenous administration in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Am. J. Vet. Res., 64, 109-114.
[42]  R.P. Hunter (2002) Nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Anim. Health Res. Rev., 3, 119-133.
[43]  R.P. Hunter & R. Isaza (2002) Zoological pharmacology-current status, issues, and potential. Adv. Drug Del. Rev., 54, 787-793.
[44]  R.P. Hunter, C.R. Short, & A.A. Dees (2001) Interaction of cimetidine with equine hemoglobin. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 24, 299-302.
[45]  J.C. Daigle, G. Hosgood, C.S. Foil, & R.P. Hunter (2001) Effect of cimetidine on pharmacokinetics of orally administered cyclosporine in healthy dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 62, 1046-1050.
[46]  R.P. Hunter, C.R. Short, J.R. McClure, C.E. Koch, M.L. Keowen, J.L. VanSteenhouse, & A.A. Dees (1999) Cimetidine inhibits nitric oxide associated nitrate production in a soft-tissue inflammation model in the horse. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 22, 136-147.
[47]  L. Putcha, K.J. Tietze, D.W.A. Bourne, C.M. Parise, R.P. Hunter, & N.M. Cintrón (1996) Bioavailability of intranasal scopolamine in normal subjects. J. Pharm. Sci., 85, 899-902.
[48]  R.P. Hunter, P.C. Canning, & R. Hassfurther (1996) Plasma analysis and pharmacokinetics of zaltidine, an H2-antagonist, in cattle after intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and oral administration. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 19, 326-328.
[49]  M.A. Nowakowski, M.J. Lynch, D.G. Smith, N.B. Logan, D.E. Mouzin, J. Lukaszewicz, N.I. Ryan, R.P. Hunter, & R.M. Jones (1995) Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of parenterally administered doramectin in cattle. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 18, 290-298; 394-395.
[50]  R.P. Hunter, M.J. Lynch, J.F. Ericson, W.J. Millas, A.M. Fletcher, N.I. Ryan, & J.A. Olson (1995) Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability and tissue distribution of azithromycin in cats. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 18, 38-46.
[51]  R.P. Hunter, S. Anthony Brown, J.K. Rollins, & D.F. Nelligan (1991) The effects of experimentally induced bronchopneumonia on the pharmacokinetics and tissue depletion of gentamicin in healthy and pneumonic calves. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 14, 276-292.
[52]  S.A. Brown, D.R. Newkirk, R.P. Hunter, G.G. Smith, & K. Sugimoto (1990) Extraction methods for quantitation of gentamicin residues from tissues using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., 73, 479-483.
[53]  S.A. Brown, M.J. Zaya, T.M. Dieringer, R.P. Hunter, J.L. Nappier, G.A. Hoffman, R.E. Hornish, & F.S. Yein (1990) Tissue concentrations of clindamycin after multiple oral doses in normal cats. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 13, 270-277.
[54]  S.A. Brown, T.M. Dieringer, R.P. Hunter, & M.J. Zaya (1989) Oral clindamycin disposition after single and multiple doses in normal cats. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 12, 209-216.

Publications: Books/Book Chapters

[1]  R.P. Hunter (2010) Interspecies allometric scaling. In Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: Comparative and Veterinary Pharmacology, vol. 199; Editors: F. Cunningham, J. Elliott, & P. Lees; Springer Verlag. pp. 139-157.
[2]  R.P. Hunter (2009) Zoological Pharmacology. In Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 9th edition; Editors: J.E. Riviere & M.G. Papich; Iowa State University Press; Ames, Iowa. pp. 1343-1352.