Adrián G. Cornejo

Based on the Schwarzschild metric, the Flamm’s paraboloid of revolution, and the Lense–Thirring precession, we explore a model in which the entire Solar System rotates and undulates the curved surface of space-time that forms it. This model considers the representation of a curved space-time surface as an undulated four-dimensional surface in rotation with vertex at the Sun. With this model, the rate of apsidal precession, axial precession, nutation and Chandler wobble of the Earth can be predicted from a rotating and undulating Solar System scenario. In this approximation, nutation and Chandler wobble can be described as arbitrary oscillations in the Earth’s orbit as it traverses an undulating space-time surface while orbits. According to this model, planets and other celestial bodies in the Solar System would oscillate when orbiting around the Sun, forming the rate of the observed nutation and Chandler wobble of the Earth and Mars while the system is in rotation. The undulations on the curved space-time surface would resemble consecutive waves as in a fluid in rotation. The curved space-time geometry of the Solar System can be observed from pictures taken from orbiting spacecraft. Then, we estimate in this model the orientation of the Earth’s North Pole with respect to curved space-time, considering that the North Pole must point towards the inner Solar System.

]]>Joseph R. Guerci, Robert W. Schutz

This paper puts forth the proposition that Dark Matter (DM) is in fact gravitational solitons originally forged in the Big Bang and sustained by their nonlinear interaction with ordinary matter of sufficient density and distribution to achieve the requisite nonlinear space-time manifold required for soliton or nonlinear stationary wave solutions. This hypothesis is supported by the following facts and/or reasonable deductions: (1) Einstein’s field equations (EFEs) admit soliton solutions (gravisolitons); (2) Gravitational solitons of sufficient launching energy were likely in abundance during the early evolution of the Big Bang due to the highly energetic and nonlinear nature of the primordial space-time manifold; (3) These solitons have gravitational attraction; (4) Current astronomical observations indicate Dark Matter is only observed in the presence of of ordinary matter and it is not found in galaxies that are sparsely populated or in space devoid of significant matter. Unlike the search for the elusive Dark Matter “particle”, the soliton hypothesis can be verified through computer simulation and current astronomical observations. The paper ends by detailing two computer experiments that can be performed to confirm the hypotheses.

]]>Osama Khalil

Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding. In addition, Olbers’ paradox is resolved by the fact that the universe is expanding and what is causing that is dark energy, which means that distant light has not yet reached us. In addition, dark matter is causing the gravitational force. However, the explanation of cosmic microwave background and the correct explanation of dark matter are not concluded yet. Here I show that the dark matter theory is correct in a different way. Dark matter is at the end and background of the universe making night sky dark. In simple terms, the universe is dark because it has dark molecules of matter at its boundaries. In addition, light speed is the fastest speed, if a far galaxy is at the end of universe, we will not see it in the big bang (early universe) or we will not see it in any time or we will see it in its time as we see all galaxies of the universe in cosmic microwave background. The cosmic microwave background is explained further in the paper. It is believed that the role of magnetic field proved that it is powerful in attraction force of any object in space.

]]>Adrián G. Cornejo

This work is a review that summarizes the previous works that describe the theory in which the movement of some circular or disk cosmological systems, such as the entire disk of the Solar System and spiral galaxies, corresponds to the dynamics like a rigid body in rotational motion. It has been found that both the Lagrangian solution and the relativistic solution consider all the energies and forces involved in the rotating systems. On this assumption, we have been derived the respective equations to explain the apsidal precession of the planets, the Earth’s axial precession and the rotation curves of some spiral galaxies, all of them due to the effect of rotating systems like a rigid body in rotational motion. A good approximation between the calculated and the observations for each of these cases has been found. Thus, this theory unifies classical mechanics (through Lagrangian mechanics) with the solution of general relativity and its intrinsic consideration of the rigid body in rotational motion in the three-dimensional framework. Also, it unifies all these rotational behavior of these disk cosmological systems in the same concept of the rigid body in rotational motion.

]]>Sohrab Abdollahi

Our mathematics is incomplete and faulty; it just may describe the universe (existence) but not the super universe (universe + nothingness). Nothingness is considered a conceptual entity; it is the concept of physicochemical laws without any physical property. It is not zero, emptiness, absence, or vacuum. It is denoted by -0 and is purely conceptual. The universe is surrounded by nothingness and there is a wall of conversion between them. This wall converts nothingness into existence (the universe). The laws of the relevance of the opposition control the nature and behavior of the super universe. Nothingness and the universe, time and motion, absolute darkness, and absolute lightness are the negative inverses of each other; this is the meaning of the *opposite *in this principle. This principle shows that distance is the natural logarithm of one divided by unit(value) of time (t), and in the universe, the value of time fluctuates between 0 and 1. At zero and 1 the values of time are at extreme, infinitely low, and infinitely high (time almost stops). Mass and energy are not conserved in the universe but they are conserved in the supper universe. In the universe there are two kinds of expansion; one is a general expansion in which mass, energy, and space are involved and the other is local expansion and contraction in which only mass and energy are involved.

Miguel M. Artificio

The researcher wants to determine if there is a relationship between the aerosol optical depth over the Philippines and the sunspots count over an 8-year period. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between sunspots count and aerosol optical depth. The research is limited to cover an 8-year period because the availability of data from the AERONET starts only from 2009 to 2016. The researcher used three wavelengths of AOD for this study which are 320nm, 500nm and 1020nm, to see if there is an effect on each wavelength of aerosol to the sunspot number. Based on the result of the statistical treatment for AOD 1020, 500 and 340, and sunspots count, there is an inverse relationship or negative relationship between the sunspots count and aerosol optical depth.

]]>C. Achoundong, C. Kenfack-Sadem, A. Fomethe, M. F. C. Fobasso, A. J. Fotue, L. C. Fai

In this paper, we investigate some thermodynamics properties of quantum Black Hole. The Black Hole of Reissner-Nordstrom model with a self-gravitating charged pure vacuum shell as a source is studied using Schrödinger equation. We show that the density energy strongly influences the horizon radius of the black hole. It is shown that the gravity has no effect for certain values of the mass of quantum black hole. Moreover, the probability density shows that Black Hole stabilises itself when the radius increases. We show that the quantum Black Hole loses information when the event horizon increases. We show the evidence that quantum black Hole emit information. It is seen that the heat capacity increases with temperature and follow the Dulong and Petit Low. We observed that the Quantum black Hole system loses a certain amount of energy.

]]>Adrián G. Cornejo

This work describes the hypothesis in which the explanation of the rotational velocity of barred spiral galaxies is based on the relativistic solution. Considering a previous relativistic solution for the unbarred spiral galaxies, this solution assumes that the entire spiral galaxy disk would rotate like a rigid (or solid) body. It is considered that both the Solar System and spiral galaxies are behaving like a rigid body in rotation. Then, having both systems the same dynamical behaviour, which can be explained by the same relativistic solution, these two apparently different cases are unified in the same solution. Thus, the stars and gas in the spiral galaxy must be rotating with the system in an almost the same and uniform angular velocity. Nevertheless, according to the Kerr metric for the rotating black hole, at the zone of the bar of barred spiral galaxies, stars and gas must be changing their direction toward the rotation poles of the black hole. On these assumptions, we apply the equation based on the relativistic solution to the barred spiral galaxies. More precisely, we present examples of the rotation curves of unbarred spiral galaxies: NGC 4378 and NGC 4594, and the barred spiral galaxies: Milky Way and, NGC 7541. Comparing our calculations with the observations we find a good approximation.

]]>Adrián G. Cornejo

This work describes the hypothesis where the explanation of the Earth’s axial precession can be based on the General Theory of Relativity solution. In this solution, the entire Solar System disk would rotate like a solid (or rigid) body, so that the Earth changes its position with respect to the “fixed” stars. On this assumption, we define the equation that describes the period of Earth’s axial precession based on the relativistic solution and comparing our estimates with the observations, finding a good approximation between the estimated period of the Earth’s axial precession and the observations.

]]>Adrián G. Cornejo

This work describes the hypothesis where the explanation of the rotational velocity of spiral Sa galaxies is based on the General Theory of Relativity solution. In this solution, a spiral Sa galaxy disk would rotate like a solid body, so that the stars into the spiral Sa galaxy must be rotating with the system at a uniform angular velocity. On these assumptions, we define the equation that describes the rotational velocity of stars in a spiral Sa galaxy based on the relativistic solution and present examples of the rotation curves of spiral Sa galaxies NGC 4378 and NGC 4594, comparing our estimates with the observations, finding a good approximation between the estimated rotation curves and the known rotation curves of these spiral Sa galaxies.

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