Khoroshavtsev Y. E.

A hypothesis is put forward according to which the formulas of Relativity are a consequence of the laws of quantum physics and may be applied only to quantum objects. According to the wave - particle duality quantum bodies are simultaneously the waves and considered in the present research with a use of the wave equation and requirement of its Lorentz‘s invariance. The property of invariance with respect to the Lorentz’s transform is analysed in hyperbolic coordinates in an area of complex numbers. An examination showed that formulas of relativistic kinematics can be obtained based on the condition of equality of the amplitudes and phases of the wave, observed from different inertial frames. There is no need to introduce the concept of a unified entity of space-time, but the return to the idea of aether and matter waves de Broglie occurs. The physical model becomes borrowed partly from quantum field theory. It is assumed that the moving particle binds to a wave of the aether disturbance, and only this wave acts on the other particle like an electromagnetic field pushes an electrical charge. The model of colliding elastic balls becomes inapplicable, but equations of relativity mechanics remain the same, however, with a new interpretation. The mass of a particle in all coordinate systems is constant, in exchange the expressions of energy and momentum alter relative the classical case, include the property of aether – coefficient *c* of the wave equation, and acquire relativistic forms.

JP. C. Mbagwu, Z. L. Abubakar, J. O. Ozuomba

The theory of relativity was initially conditioned by the unfinished electrodynamics theory. In the theory of relativity Albert Einstein kept some ideas in his mind which was important for the modification of Physics. The two basic principles of special relativity are: (1) the speed of light is a constant in a vacuum (Murkowski space), and (2) all the physical laws remain the same for local inertial frames. In Time Dilation and Length Contraction, Einstein established some notions with a range of anomalies. Time dilates and contracts because of the fluctuation of gravitational influence in numerous space-time. In the theory of equivalence, Einstein explained that gravitational and mass are identical. But this explanation of the principle of equivalence needs more elaboration. The body retains definite shape, size, and density, but it can only express mass with the help of gravitation. Beyond the force, the field body is unable to specific mass. This concept is not incorporated with the idea of the principle of equivalence.

]]>Alice Bukola Olanipekun, Catherine Obaze, Brian Diagbonya

A theoretical investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of CaF_{2}, BaF_{2} and Ba_{0.50}Ca_{0.50}F_{2} is presented, using the pseudopotential plane-wave (PP-PW) method as implemented in the QUANTUM ESPRESSO code. In this research, the exchange-correlation (XC) potential was approximated using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice constants and bulk moduli are in good agreement with experimental results for both the binary compounds and their alloy. Band structure of Ba_{0.50}Ca_{0.50}F_{2} is presented and band gap calculated. In addition to DFT-PBE calculation of the band gap, a semi empirical model is used for the calculation of band gap and a good agreement with experiment is obtained. The pressure coefficients of energy gaps and refractive indices are also calculated.

Maciej Rybicki

Quantum extension of the Newton’s second law of motion in the relativistic form (referred to as Einstein’s second law) is proposed in order to adjust it to the realm of elementary particles subjected to extreme accelerations. An underlying idea is the quantization of proper time, set in a close connection with the concept of maximal proper acceleration. The relativistic concept of proper time is identified with the quantum notion of evolution parameter. The postulated quantum of proper time is thought to depend on the particle mass: consequently relates to the Compton wavelength as and to the Caianiello’s maximal proper acceleration as Quantization of proper time makes the relativistic increase of particle mass/energy discrete, which impacts on the general shape of Newton’s second law, now including both velocity and acceleration limits. Introducing the acceleration-dependent term results in a gradual neutralization of the mass increase as determined by the mass-velocity relation, together with the increasing proper acceleration. The new formula satisfies the correspondence principle with respect to the classical (Newtonian and relativistic) cases, and to the relevant formula connecting Planck units of force, mass and acceleration. The obtained results are juxtaposed with the quantization of spacetime proposed by the Causal Sets approach to quantum gravity.

]]>Doron Kwiat

The existence of strings has not yet been proven, but it will be shown in the following, that if a classical fermion is considered as made up of two coupled strings, then the coupling between these two strings creates tension in the strings, and this tension is proportional to the coupling force via the Planck constant.

]]>Osama Khalil

Einstein’s general theory of relativity, on its own, predicted that space-time began at the Big Bang singularity and would come to an end either at the big crunch singularity (if the whole universe recollapsed), or at a singularity inside a black hole (if a local region, such as a star, were to collapse) (2). In addition, I showed that the time is the momentum of space (inversely proportional relation) (3), time is direct proportional to static and it is believed that there is no one is eternal except the Creator which proves his existence, so time is the Creator and the Creator is time (4). However, the prediction of how the Big Crunch will happen is poorly known. Here I show that if the motion of the planet earth and the sun have stopped, this means that the motion of the black hole at center of the galaxy has stopped also and this means a lot of things: this means that time has stopped according to my theory of the time and because of the gravity of the sun, the earth will come closer to the sun and because of the gravity of the black hole, the sun and the earth will come closer to the black hole and maybe they fall into the black hole which achieve the second prediction of Einstein’s general theory of relativity for the big crunch. When the earth move about the sun in the opposite direction after the motion of the earth has stopped, the Big Crunch occurs because it is the opposite direction of moving of the earth about the sun at the beginning of the Big Bang and that explains the first prediction of Einstein’s theory of gravity of the Big Crunch.

]]>H. K. Limbu, K. K. Mishra, G. P. Adhikari, I. S. Jha

The surface tension is calculated using Butler’s equation and Layered structure approach. Viscosity is obtained from Singh and Sommer’s formulation, Moelwyn-Hughes equation and Kaptay equation at different temperatures. we have computed interchange energy by estimating the best fit experimental and theoretical values at 700K using Flory’s model. Taking these values of interchange energy at 700K, interchange energy at different temperatures are calculated using optimization method. Using values of interchange energy at different temperatures, heat of mixing, entropy of mixing and free energy of mixing at corresponding temperatures are computed. The partial excess free energy is calculated with the help of values of free energy of mixing which is used to find surface tension.

]]>Osama Khalil

Newton showed that Time was separate from space and was considered to be a single line, or railroad track, that was infinite in both directions. Time itself was considered eternal, in the sense that it had existed, and would exist, forever [1]. In addition, Einstein showed in the flat spacetime of special relativity, observers moving at different speeds will have different measures of time [1]. Also, in general relativity, matter-energy curves spacetime and matter moves on geodesics that are determined by the curvature of spacetime [4]. However, there is no explanation of how gravity is related to time. Here I show that there is two types of time theory to relate it with gravity. Newton’s theory of time is related to the creator. Special relativity is related to every creation. In addition there is a new theory of time and it is the more the momentum of rotation of the earth around the sun, the less the time we feel on earth and the time produced on earth will shrink and vice versa. The more the gravity of the sun, the less the distance between the sun and the earth, so the circumference of the orbit will be less and calculation of days and years will be less. So, there is an inversely proportional relation between gravity and time.

]]>Kelechukwu C. N. Dozie

This paper examines the Buys-Ballot estimation procedure for time series decomposition when the trending curve is linear and admits mixed model. The main objective is to obtain the row, column and the overall means of Buys- Ballot table for the mixed model. The method adopted is Buys-Ballot procedure developed for choice model, estimation of trend parameter and seasonal indices by [1]. Results of the computed values of the estimated trend parameters and seasonal indices are given in table 3.

]]>Kalyan Deb

A quantum particle is an elementary or a composite particle having a mass value lower than the Planck mass, and so it is subjected to a self-actuated jittery motion instead of a translational motion due to gravitation, however, under an exogenous cause it may undertake motion in space along with a waveform comprising of virtual particles created out of space. As a result it appears as a wave-particle unity instead of duality with its wave and particle nature simultaneously interacting with the conventional dual slit(s) or the input-output beam splitters causing interference even under delayed-choice scenario, provided it continues to remain in the quantum domain. Any observation made on the quantum particle by an external source will render it out of the quantum domain by imparting additional energy and then it will behave like a particle only. Thus reality of nature is a true spectacle and an unambiguous manifestation in the universe at all times.

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